Designed to Fail: Why IT Projects Underachieve and what to do about it by Donald Marchand and Joe Peppard contrasts two paradigms that guide IT project implementation.  The ever-popular Design-to-Build (D2B) paradigm focuses on the building process and on time, scope and budget.  The Design-for-Use (D4U) paradigm focuses on how people use information and IT to carry out business tasks and processes.

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Key Quotes:
Our evidence is overwhelming: the design-to-build paradigm that underpins the development and execution of most IT implementations today is flawed and incomplete.
Most IT projects are “designed to fail!” From the outset, despite the investment of money and effort, these projects were never going to deliver the successful outcomes that were promised in the business cases. And in an effort to achieve this elusive success, many organizations often continue to pour additional money into a project long after it should have been abandoned, in the hope that somehow they will get it right.
In light of all the dismal statistics, why do so many organizations continue to subscribe to the same project methodologies that have produced little to no business value in the past?
What we have described in this paper is in many ways common sense, but unfortunately it is not common practice.
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